There are at least two approaches how to deal with these difﬁculties. Health equity is concerned with providing equal opportunities for good health for all people and reducing avoidable and unfair differences in health among population groups. Stockpiles of antiviral drugs were not fully used. Even when tobacco smoking policies gained a wide support, there are problematic areas, for example, whether or not to permit or to facilitate smoking of patients in health-care institutions, especially smokers with limited life expectancy for whom smoking may be one of the last life’s pleasures. This text is about providing researchers, and future researchers, with an up-to-date and comprehensive set of tools to investigate public health issues and problems, to ultimately better inform public health policy and practice. However, the recently launched new initiative Global Health Security Agenda promises to increase the societal commitment on a global scale. A Socio-Ecological Model of Affordable Care Act Acceptance, Pratiksha Vaghela. Welcome to Health matters, Public Health England’s (PHEs) professional resource, which includes infographics, videos, case studies and slide sets alongside written content. Bulletin of World Health Organization, 86(8), 624–629. The ethics of public health (Vol. Interesting: A good research question will be about a topic that contributes to the purpose of your field. On the pragmatic level, globalization with its increasing integration of markets and technological advances made possible and necessary to share demographic. See our online services, training, and resources, or ask us a question. Library staff are still ready to assist you with your information needs. (Ed.). Prevalence of HIV infection as reported by the government is very low in comparison with the other Caribbean countries, but this was not veriﬁed by independent studies. Only much later considerations were given to ethics evaluation and regulation of public health research. You can use our professional writing services to buy a custom research paper on any topic and get your high quality paper at affordable price. It appears that because the outbreaks were short and limited to Africa, the rest of the world was not very concerned. By 2006, the World Health Organization (WHO) has published guidelines on pandemic inﬂuenza preparedness and response planning and released documents outlining also relevant ethical considerations. Singled out for attention were infectious diseases, health equity, health promotion, screening and testing, and research with human subjects. It has been suggested that the high mortality is not just due to virus virulence but also due to lack of trained personnel and adequate equipment in the countries hardest hit, because none of a handful of Ebola patients who were diagnosed in early stage in the USA and Western Europe have died. Public Health Research Methods is a comprehensive collection of research methods used in the field of public health. Though it took me some time to find some good examples of research topics in Public health, but finally it's available for students who either pursuing an undergraduate degree or looking for research topics in public health for masters. Public health ethics studies various theories of ethics, which guide or could guide public health actions. When most people (80–95 %) accept a particular vaccination, even those who were not vaccinated are protected because the transmission of the infectious agent was successfully interrupted. Even WHO was accused of being slow to react, and journalists noted that the assistance to affected countries only materialized when a US citizen was infected. 2011), but a number of authorities endorsed the concept of universal testing and treatment. Public health has been defined as “the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals” We have developed a compelling list of interesting Public Health research paper topics. Challenges that particularly invite bioethics assessment are control of infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS, SARS, inﬂuenza pandemic, and Ebola fever. Public health ethics can understand, respect, and offer to the society critical moral assessment of both perspectives while stressing the importance of solidarity and duty of fair play (Holland 2007, pp. Common Data Types in Public Health Research. Promotion of healthy living, as understood at a particular time in a particular society, has been always part of the public health mandate. Given those circumstances, it is not surprising that books, reports, and articles produced by founding fathers of bioethics in the 1970s and 1980s did not address public health as an academic discipline or practical activity. [cited 2015 May 25] Available from: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6939/7/12. You control the data collection process, so you can ensure data quality, minimize the number of missing values, and assess the reliability of your instruments (Romano). This greatest epidemic in modern history represents an important ongoing public health issue, being the fourth leading cause of death in the world. Your research will be about improving and promoting public health, so any question you ask has to be related to that goal. Due to this and other distinctions between personal health care and public health, each sector of health care requires some speciﬁc ethical considerations. References. The cause of SARS was at ﬁrst unknown, the fatality rate was high, and all therapy was only supportive or experimental. A personalist approach to public health ethics. You may not need to worry about informed consent, human subjects restriction (Romano). In 1967, the US public health service overreacted to an emergence of a new strain by starting mass vaccination which turned up to be entirely unnecessary – the so-called swine ﬂu ﬁasco. Often requires special techniques to analyze statistically the data. Actions of public health authorities should be transparent and administered with substantive and procedural justice. For each of these global health research topics, find an in-depth collection of information, resources and funding opportunities from Fogarty, the NIH, other U.S. government agencies, nongovernmental organizations and more. Statistics has played a critical role of in public health research and practice, and you’ll start by looking at two examples: one from eighteenth century London and the other by the United Nations. SAGE Publications, 1991. CiteScore: 3.3 ℹ CiteScore: 2019: 3.3 CiteScore measures the average citations received per peer-reviewed document published in this title. The term public health as a public good, is yet, a thing to pass, because public health quality is a very serious challenge in our country, Liberia, to reach to the unreachable with present of bad road conditions, none or very limited health facility of structures by qualified facilities and quality health information to reach with other services to population, are all not available yet, though. Some will argue that careful examination of proposed public health activities allows imperfect but practically useful decisions if the project should be subject to standard ethics review or not. Guide to library research for evidence-informed public health practice. Several professional bodies offered lists of conditions that need to be present to consider a screening program ethically acceptable. The utilitarian theories which stress consequences of actions are of importance because the practice of public health is often driven by the principle of utility, which suggests that we ought to produce the maximal balance of positive value, such as health, over negative value, such as disease. (2010). It became clear that distinct ethical concerns and questions arising from the existence of infectious diseases and our attempt to control them need to be recognized and addressed (Selgelid et al. However, in the last 50 years, screening and testing of not just individuals but populations and communities became an important tool for secondary disease prevention and now represents an important component of public health programs. In public health, research typically occurs outside of the controlled environment that is characteristic of biomedical research. Public Health England (PHE) has conducted research into current practice on whole system approaches to community-centred public health. Finally, because vaccine research is driven by needs of richer countries, some vaccines that would be useful in developing countries do not get developed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Qualitative data is a broad category of data that can include almost any non-numerical data. A radically different approach to prevention was taken by Cuba, which in 1987 implemented a strict quarantine for all HIV-infected individuals and established mandatory testing program. This infection eventually spread to 37 countries with over 8,000 reported cases and led to the death of about 800 people. Competing theories and geopolitics. Epidemiology and biostatistics provide important methodologies for public health, and each has its own range of ethical issues. Study design and data collection already completed (Koziol & Arthur, nd). (Eds. At least one out of four children does not receive vaccination because of cost, shortage of staff, and lack of infrastructure, refrigeration, and transportation or due to war conﬂicts. Using content analysis, researchers can quantify and analyze the presence, meanings and relationships of such certain words, themes, or concepts. Public health ethics is distinct from health law, yet many public health actions are governed by or restricted by laws of the land. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Also, many people affected were already socially stigmatized, and there was a concern about further compromising their dignity and human rights. But public health decisions in this area are difﬁcult and have to be done with sensitivity to various situations. (2010) reviewed and compared six of such frameworks and found that none of them took into account all ethical issues that emerge in one particular program which they evaluated, a program for obesity prevention. Public health research often seeks engagement with communities or stakeholders to legitimize projects and recruit participants, but this does not always assure impartial science and high regard for the interest of subjects. Early in the new century, articles and books emerged that endeavored to offer ethics frameworks or processes for ethical assessments that would designed to facilitate effective public health interventions able to reduce current mortality and morbidity while at the same time maintain individual freedoms and advance social justice. It was noted that SARS outbreak in Toronto, Ontario, led to half of deaths that were caused without much public attention in Montreal, Quebec, at about the same time by an outbreak caused by Clostridium difﬁcile. Three Approaches to Qualitative Content Analysis.Qualitative Health Research. Obesity Review, 12(9), 669–679. Health for all? Historically, public health practitioners have always been aware of the signiﬁcance of fairness and justice, but now this moral concern has moved to the forefront (Sen 2004). The problem seems to be that public health authorities made their decisions on incomplete evidence. 2006) and the Nufﬁeld Council on Bioethics in the UK. Supported by RWJF and the Kresge Foundation, the team also hosts the 3,000-member Public Health Systems Research (PHSR) interest group and leads initiatives aimed at exploring and enhancing the U.S. public health system by formulating, translating, and applying evidence to public health … All screening programs, even those that do not appear ethically problematic, while designed to provide beneﬁts, also introduce some risks. There are seven broad areas of research that comprise the work of faculty. The novel virus was less lethal and less contagious than pandemic plans, based on near worst-case scenario, expected. Example of qualitative data from a health care setting includes (Curry, Nembhard, & Bradley, 2009): Measures of clinical leadership in implementing evidence-based guidelines. This outbreak is testing the commitment to International Health Regulations and the global cooperation in infection control. Data may potentially lack depth (the greater the breadth the harder it is to measure any one construct in depth) (Koziol & Arthur, nd). When the inﬂuenza pandemic did arrive in 2009, it was less severe than plans anticipated, and this also created certain ethical challenges. Pandemic preparedness in Africa and some other developing countries was a profound challenge, given often rudimentary health-care systems and the need to deal with other infections. Among the conditions often cited is the acceptability by the public, and this raises questions when and how to obtain a community consent for a screening program. An ethical evaluation of the 2006 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommendations for HIV testing in health care setting. There will be other measures that may gain support from an ethical perspective, such as restriction on marketing of certain food products. Data Types Quantitative Data. Public health ethics: Mapping the terrain. Public health ethics then is the sub discipline of bioethics (or health-care ethics) that endeavors to clarify, prioritize, and justify possible public health interventions based on moral values, ethical principles and interests of stakeholders, scientiﬁc evidence, and other relevant information. Freeman, M. The program provides tools for state and local public health systems and public health governing bodies to assess capacity and performance. Best scientiﬁc evidence should inform all public health decisions, yet these decisions also need to take into account human needs, relationships, and aspirations. Public health services and systems research plays an important role in the development of this evidence base; support should be expanded over the decade, with a strong focus on translating research into practice. Category: Health Research Paper Examples. Public Health Laboratory Service, United Kingdom: US Public Health Service Commissioned Corps : Provides needed health care services underserved and needy populations within the United States. Asian scholars pointed out a strong moral tradition from Buddhism to Confucianism associated with the term compassion. Only 66 % of information from clinical trials supported by a major manufacturer were published, with the tendency to withhold negative ﬁndings. Public health ethics deals with moral aspects of development, implementation, teaching, and research of public health. Sen, A. The combined effect of these measures was that the transmission of infection, which was later determined to be due to a coronavirus which jumped species from animals to man, was stopped and at least temporarily driven out of the human population. Journal of Infection, 49(3), 210–215. Pandemic plans frequently referred to ethical concerns or had a section on ethics. This points toward unacceptability of severe disparities in access to good-quality care which threatens not only developing countries but the world community. It is recognized that public health needs to advance and protect the public good, but how should public good be deﬁned, who ought to do that, and how should the population be involved, with the least possible degree of infringement on freedoms of individuals, families, and communities, are questions which need to be asked and answered again and again as physical and social environments change. Research candidates seeking to undertake a PhD, Masters by Research or Master of Philosophy can look for potential research topics through the following resources: Student Thesis Titles For example, research on indigenous populations in remote settings or a cultural minority group in the city may expose them to exploitation by commercial interest, to a ridicule of the public, or to unfavorable treatment by the political system. Gaithersburg, Md. Thompson, A. K., Faith, K. M., Gibson, J. L., & Upshur, R. E. G. (2006). However, if someone decides not to get vaccinated in order to avoid a discomfort of the procedure or the small risks which are shared with all others, this person can be called a freeloader – he or she wants to enjoy the beneﬁts without paying the price. Yet, even in Africa, effective response is possible. Practical ethical decision making can be facilitated by applyi… P - Population. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press. Virtue ethics, with its doctrine of means, can also guide us in moral assessment of public health actions. Methods for systematic reviews are well developed for trials, but not for non-experimental or qualitative research. Nevertheless, the ﬁrst decade of the twenty-ﬁrst century has been termed the “golden age of global health” because of its rapid development policies and practices (Basilico et al. But some critics contend that trade agreements by enforcing deregulation are negatively affecting the reach of public health services, control of hazardous substance, oversight of worker safety, quality of drinking water, and adequacy of sanitation. Public health practitioners have always been aware of the ethical dimension of their ﬁeld, but public health ethics as a subdiscipline of bioethics has emerged only at the end of the last century, and it is still a young and unsettled ﬁeld. Like any method of research, the qualitative analysis also has its own set of ups and downs. These topics were selected either because ethical reﬂections have signiﬁcantly shaped them or because these events or programs shaped public health ethics. Dordrecht/Boston/London: Kluwer. The Public Health Research (PHR) Programme is funded by the NIHR, with contributions from the CSO in Scotland, Health and Care Research Wales and the HSC R&D Division, Public Health Agency in Northern Ireland. 1B.J. Commentators decreed the lack of regular, realistic, and credible reports of authorities on pandemic situation to public and professionals. Public health practitioners, however, are in need of simpler tools for practical ethical decision making on a day-to-day basis. Subsequently, the basic deﬁnition and distinctions of this discipline from related ﬁelds will be offered. PDF. Vaccination, isolation, and quarantine are examples of public health interventions that require balancing of health beneﬁts to community with the loss of freedom for some individuals. 2005, p. 3). Knowing and understanding these assets and liabilities can help you decide if this research plan is the one for you. It could be said that it was slow coming, but, eventually, it became a lifesaver of the continent, with many states, nongovernmental organizations, and private foundations contributing. This bring to question one chief element of pandemic response strategy and the expense of billions of dollars ($750 million just in the UK) to acquire the drug stockpiles. The ethical concerns about vaccination of children in developing countries are different, because there are millions of children still dying from preventable diseases. At stake are important human rights such as freedom and opportunity to earn a living and to discharge family responsibilities. While most countries still have quarantine laws, in modern times it has been extensively used for the ﬁrst time in 2003 to control SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome). Ebola 2014 – New challenges, new global response and responsibility. Inﬂuenza virus is also known to produce global disease outbreaks, called pandemics, three or four times every century when the radical change in the genetic makeup of the virus makes everyone susceptible. Ethical issues in the vaccination in developed and in developing world are different, especially as they concern immunization of children. The report also highlighted that decision-making process in planning and response should be transparent, reasonable, inclusive, responsive, and accountable. At the present time, there is no single ethical theory of public health ethics that would be universally accepted, and consequently there is no universal standard that could be used to measure the moral “goodness” or “badness” of actions in public health. Public Health Research. Public health ethics. These measures were not sufﬁcient to stop the epidemic. Direct assistance to Ebola-affected countries by states that have resources and technologies is essential to stop the outbreak, but there is also a moral obligation for assisting countries to leave behind stronger systems to identify, stop, and prevent future threats (Frieden et al.