And being a deeply spiritual person, Shi-Nav-Egin was highly respected within the Tribe. He understood the natural order that all inhabitants of Mother Earth are connected. I have often quarried; why should those conditions be forgotten, and why has so little interest been taken in keeping memoranda and records of events and conditions of those early and trying times. The Black Hawk War grew from severe tension between the Mormon settlers and the Native Americans in the Utah Territory. Add to his agony the murder of his father Sanpitch, his uncle Wakara, the death of Arapean, and a series of bloody confrontations leading up to the Bear River Massacre where some four hundred of Black Hawk's Shoshoni blood relations are brutally slaughtered, Howard R. Driggs commented, "He could never understand why the white men had shot down his people. It is easy to assume that Black Hawk would be filled with anger and hate and wanted revenge. The Indians were led by a local Ute chief, Antonga Black Hawk. As a leader, Black Hawk's first responsibility was spiritual. "My great-grandfather Peter was a friend of Black Hawk and spent much of his youth living in the camps of the Timpanogos during the Utah's Indian wars. In the Native way there were no 'Chiefs' but there were many leaders, and depending on the situation a person was chosen by the community to lead them accordingly. The Lemhi are also known as Snake Shoshone as are the Timpanogos. With a Book of Mormon in one hand, and a gun in the other, they came to save the 'heathens' from hell... and get rich. Ignorance is the root of racism. For over two decades and a million dollars in church funds, these wars would result in more than 150 brutal confrontations with Mormon colonists who were recent converts to the LDS Church and emigrated to North America from England, Ireland, Wales, and Denmark, to name a few. We didn't know any kind of money and consequently, the value of a human being was not determined by his wealth. They describe in their journals having met "the bearded ones" or Eutahs who spoke Shoshone. ", "After all is said and done about the War and all the suffering it caused, I make this one conclusion: In the end, it’s about the human condition. He didn't want to see his people die, yet people typically lay all the blame on him and Utah's indigenous peoples. Chief Joseph said, “We have no qualms about color. Seeing the valley, Brigham said, “It's enough. In collaboration with tribal leaders, Gottfredson shares the Timpanogos version of the story, writing from the vantage point of the native peoples of Utah â a reference point that has been deliberately ignored. For a detailed account on the origins of both tribes read The Utah Timpanogos & Colorado Ute Oxymoron. The Indians were led by a local Ute chief, Antonga Black Hawk. The Black Hawk War was a series of skirmishes in 1832 between U.S. Army and frontier militia units against the followers of Sauk Chief Black Hawk. "What choice were we given? The antagonism of the government leaders in Washington toward Utah's polygamy, theocracy, and isolationism made Mormon leader Brigham Young wary of seeking any federal help--a reaction Black Hawk astutely anticipated. There were four wars with the Timpanogos in Utah; the Fort Utah War 1848-49, Walker War 1853, Tintic War 1856, and the Black Hawk War 1865. Psychological shock and severe distress spanning more than two decades was for the Snake-Shoshoni Timpanogos Nation far outside their usual range of experience. Utah's Black Hawk War veterans. It took an act of Congress, the help of National Forest Service archeologist Charmain Thompson, and the humanitarian efforts of a boy scout Shane Armstrong to find and rebury the remains of Black Hawk at Spring Lake. The Black Hawk Indian War was the longest and most destructive conflict between pioneer immigrants and Native Americans in Utah History. ", "Oh yes â there is much we can learn from Native Americans â if only we would listen. The war may have begun for the Mormons in 1865 according to their historians, but the Timpanogos have not forgotten the previous sixteen years when their ancestors were brutally massacred at Battle Creek, Fort Utah and Bear River. The incidents occurred in Sanpete and Sevier counties of Southern and Central Utah. Tensions between the groups had been building since the Mormon settlers arrived in the Salt Lake Valley in 1847 due to struggles over resources. - Steven T. Newcomb Indigenous Law Institute and author of "Pagans in the Promised Land. It was not about him, he followed his people's codes and traditions, and helped his people who were starving, often going without himself. And that's what gets left out of Utah's history. ", "I learned that Antonga Black Hawk was but a boy who in time became his nations leader believing that love can overcome hate, and hypocritical morality. 5. Wakara having compassion for the Mormon's, helped Brigham and his followers survive the first winter of '47 with food and provisions. To justify the genocide of Utah's Native Nations and romanticize 'man's inhumanity to man' calling it the "Black Hawk War." As a warrior, he preferred 'taking coup' to taking a life. More of the story: Then in the year 1919 Black Hawk's grave was robbed by members of the Mormon Church. The Black Hawk war began when a group of Sauk Indians crossed the Mississippi and entered Illinois. Utah's Black Hawk War (1865–72) is the name of the estimated 150 battles, skirmishes, raids, and killings between Mormon settlers in Sanpete County, Sevier County and other parts of central and southern Utah, and members of the Ute, Paiute and Navajo tribes, led by a local Ute chief, Antonga Black Hawk. Perhaps the writers of Utah's sanitized history their intentions were never meant for Native Americans of Utah to read, who know better their own history. It all started when a handful of… I want to thank Historian Will Bagley for giving me the following document: Timpanogos Principal Chief Wakara told interpreter M. S. Martenas In 1853 "He (Wakara) said that he had always been opposed to the whites set[t]ling on the Indian lands, particularly that portion which he claims; and on which his band resides and on which they have resided since his childhood, and his parents before himâthat the Mormons when they first commenced the settlement of Salt Lake Valley, was friendly, and promised them many comforts, and lasting friendshipâthat they continued friendly for a short time, until they became strong in numbers, then their conduct and treatment towards the Indians changedâthey were not only treated unkindly, but many were much abused and this course has been pursued up to the presentâsometimes they have been treated with much severityâthey have been driven by this population from place to placeâsettlements have been made on all their hunting grounds in the valleys, and the graves of their fathers have been torn up by the whites." The Star Printing Co., Salt Lake City, 1905.). Because few people know anything about the Timpanogos culture, who they are, or what they believed in, Gottfredson seeks to educate people about them. This paper will try to explain the main issues that resulted from the Black Hawk War… To walk knee deep in the blood of our people, or give up our sacred land and culture and accept white man's ways... it was a matter of what's right... our honor... survival... why is that so complicated to understand?". "Mr. Gottfredson has done an amazing job of telling this story with passion and honesty. Or making heroes of those who cut the throats of 26 innocent Paiutes at Circleville. The answer to this and many more important questions you will find in these two books: In collaboration with the Timpanogos Nation, Phillip B Gottfredson, Author of the best-seller book "My Journey to Understand Black Hawk's Mission of Peace," shares decades of research from the perspective of the Timpanogos and the First Nations of Utah, a vantage point that has been ignored and absent from Utah's history. Eventually, and as a consequence of his heroic deed, Black Hawk would die from his wound. It's rare that we get to hear the Native people’s version of the story. The conflict resulted in the abandonment of some settlements and postponed Mormon expansion in the region. Culturally important, Peter's book is a non-fiction treasure trove of firsthand accounts of the Utah Indian Wars and in particularly the Black Hawk War spanning the time period of 1847 to 1914. Black Hawk’s intentions in 1832 If Black Hawk had known Reynolds’s intentions, he might not have led some 800 Sauk and Fox, along with about 200 Kickapoo, back across the Mississippi nine months later, in 1832. Mormon's war with the Timpanogos Nation was not a single incident. Consequently, virtually every account about Utah's indigenous peoples is biased and based on assumptions, replete with half-truths, ambiguities, platitudes, and omissions. Depths of History Recommended for you We tried to take from them their water rights. Utah's Black Hawk War Albert Winkler Brigham Young University - Provo, email@example.com Follow this and additional works at:https://scholarsarchive.byu.edu/facpub Part of theUnited States History Commons Original Publication Citation Winkler, A. Unrighteously placing all blame on the Native peoples of Utah, whose only crime was they being indegenous, is an mind-set that has prevailed since the Mormons arrived a hundred and seventy seven years ago. They also formed local militia to defend against the raids. The period of intensified raids that followed became known as the Black Hawk War (1865-68) and formed perhaps the worst Indian uprising in Utah history. Black Hawk astutely judged that political conflict between the federal government and Mormon Utah would keep U.S. soldiers from chastising his band. Along with his objections to the treaty, Black Hawk truly believed he could prevail in a war against the US. This is how propagandist creates the illusion of truth. They lived by a lake they called Timpanogos. It was a war between the Ute Native Americans and the Mormon settlers. 2". Their lineage documented by birth and marriage records, death certificates, Indian Agency records, treaties, and that the Timpanogos have filed some thirteen thousand pages of historical records with the United States Government going back to 1765. Fear and anger turned into hate, when a guard at the fort was shot and killed by the name of Alexander Keele. This was one of several attacks that occurred simultaneously throughout the territory. barely ablemann Washington DC", "This book was truly inspired! His mortal remains was first put on public display in the window of a hardware store in Spanish Fork for public amusement. They understood and respected these things as sacred gifts from their Creator. The Black Hawk War summary: The brief conflict that was fought in 1832 was given the name the Black Hawk War and was between the United States and Native Americans. A fighter will kill or be killed. University of Utah Press, 1998 - History - 432 pages. For Wakara and Arapeen had orchestrated all-out war on the invaders and were determined to drive them off their land. Christian Monarchs decreed that anyone who did not believe in the God of the Bible, or that Jesus Christ was the true Messiah, were deemed "heathens," "infidels" and "savages". So, who are the Timpanogos, and what do they say about THE UTAH BLACK HAWK WAR. Brigham assured Wakara they were only passing through to California, that they needed to spend the winter to rest and continue their journey in the spring. "Like our ancestor Wakara, we love our children and would never do such a thing." He knew that true freedom meant being in harmony with his fellow man and all that our Creator gave us. ", "Like my great-grandfather, I devoted 2 decades researching and writing about the Utah Black Hawk War. Or those who died from measles and smallpox, or poisoned to death their sources of water contaminated with cyanide and strychnine. I learned that the LDS Church has a monopoly on Utah's history. barely ablemann Washington DC - 5 stars! Dominguez and Escalante describe the Timpanogos as a strong, kind and hospitable people. Utah's Black Hawk War not only explores political intricacies and broader implications, scrutinizing the Mormons' Indian policies--most notably Brigham Young's extraordinary "better to feed them than fight them" teachings--but also presents vivid narrative accounts of various raids and battles. Antonga, or Black Hawk (born c. 1830; died September 26, 1870), was a nineteenth-century war chief of the Timpanogos Tribe in what is the present-day state of Utah.He led the Timpanogos against Mormon settlers and gained alliances with Paiute and Navajo bands in the territory against them during what became known as the Black Hawk War in Utah (1865–1872). A similar survey taken a few years from now may find John Peterson’s Utah’s Black Hawk War on many scholars’ ten best books list. (Published by Archway Publishing from Simon & Schuster.) The incidents occurred in Sanpete and Sevier counties of Southern and Central Utah. Black Hawk War - Black Hawk War - Aftermath and significance: Prisoners who had been taken by the army at Bad Axe, as well as those brought in by the Sioux over the next few weeks, were moved to Fort Armstrong on Rock Island. From 1863 to 1867, the warrior chief Black Hawk, also known as Antonga, led a combined force of Utes, Navajos, and Paiutes in a series of intense stock raids on the Mormon settlements in Utah territory. Some went to Idaho and Wyoming. The Mountain Meadows Massacre in 1857 cannot be ignored and having no impact on the Native American population in Utah. Black Hawk put family and tribe above all else. Read 14 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. A similar survey taken a few years from now may find John Peterson’s Utah’s Black Hawk War on many scholars’ ten best books list. Utah’s Black Hawk War not only explores political intricacies and broader implications, scrutinizing the Mormons' Indian policies—most notably Brigham Young’s extraordinary "better to feed them than fight them" teachings—but also presents vivid narrative accounts of various raids and battles. However, after three Mormons murdered a Timpanogos man called Old … We failed after hundreds of years of trying to take everything from American Indians. It created confusion and upset the sacred balance of nature the natural order by cutting down trees, diverting streams, killing animals, and creating chaos among all living things thus setting the stage for a major conflict with the Timpanogos Nation, whose only want was to be left alone. As the war escalated, the relationship between the Mormon settlers and the Native Americans increased in separation. The “Black Hawk War” that took place in Utah and started roughly around April 9, 1865, was the longest and most destructive war between pioneer immigrants and Native Americans in Utah history. Utah's Black Hawk War. Peterson provides the most thorough account of the Black Hawk War to date. Burial sites, massacre sites, battlefields such as Battle Creek, Bear River, or Circleville where the cries of the wounded and dying can still be heard following the horrors that took place there. We were really in bad shape before the white men arrived and I don't know how to explain how we were able to manage without these fundamental things that (so they tell us) are so necessary for a civilized society." Perhaps writers are too much in the habit of entertaining readers with flowery rhetoric and folklore, by sugar-coating Indian slavery, or understate the savage and barbarian behavior of Bill Hickman or Dr. James Blake cutting off the heads of Indian corpses at Fort Utah, then selling them to make a few extra bucks. This was Black Hawk's Mission of Peace. said the Timpanogos in an interview. Turunianchi had a son named Moonch. - Lame Deer. It's all in Phillip B Gottfredson's best-seller book titled “My Journey to Understand...BLACK HAWK'S MISSION OF PEACE” (published by Archway Publishing from Simon & Schuster). On Zion’s Mount: Mormons, Indians, and the American Landscape. Utah's Black Hawk War Reviewer Ronald O. Barney In 1977, Utah State University professor S. George Ellsworth asked ten dozen scholars, members of the Mormon History Association, to list their choices for the top ten books written in the field of Utah and Mormon studies. Mormons said that Whitehorse had a "superstitious power over his warriors" suggesting he was perhaps possessed. These forms are the applications for a medal submitted by the veteran or next of kin. Utah's Black Hawk War by John Alton Peterson. I recall the famous African proverb that says... "Until the lion tells his side of the story, the tale of the hunt will always glorify the hunter. Fought in Illinois and Wisconsin, the war was one of many conflicts between Native Americans and white settlers over western land. University of Utah Prof. Daniel McCool explained, "We took from them almost all their landâthe reservations are just a tiny remnant of traditional tribal homelands," We tried to take from them their hunting rights, their fishing rights, the timber on their land. And what is so amazing about this whole story is that we failed. The Timpanogos, who have lived in the Great Basin of Utah centuries before the Mormons arrived in 1847. He did not want war. If Black Hawk had known Reynolds’s intentions, he might not have led some 800 Sauk and Fox, along with about 200 Kickapoo, back across the Mississippi nine months later, in 1832. On July 24, 1847, LDS leader Brigham Young and a party of 143 Mormons emerged from the mouth of Cottonwood Canyon onto a hill overlooking the northern end of Timpanogos Lake (now Salt Lake valley), thus concluding a thousand-mile journey from Nauvoo, Illinois taking a hundred and eleven days by horseback and covered wagons. (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1998), 16.. Peterson, Black Hawk, 17.. Jones, Sondra. Utah s Black Hawk War (1865 ndash;72) is the name of the estimated 150 battles between Mormon settlers in Sanpete County, Sevier County and much of central Utah, and members of the Ute, Paiute and Navajo tribes, led by a local Ute chief, Antonga… Or glorifying unprincipled leaders like John Scott, or James A. Allred, or Colonel George D. Grant. No wonder Brigham also said, "It's cheaper to feed them than to fight them." Bravo, Sir ! Bravo, Sir ! And though Sowette had no power over Wakara, he was the elder, and it is the Native way to respect the elders for their wisdom and council. But by now, hundreds more Mormons had arrived. They're still here and there's survival; that great saga of survival is one of the great stories of all mankind. First published in 1919 by Skelton Publishing CO. Salt Lake City, Utah, only 100 copies were printed. She always warned against taking food from Mormons because of this.” - Mary Meyer. We tried to take from them their water rights. Black Hawk, or Antonga as he was more commonly known before the war, was born in Utah Valley some years before the first company of Mormons rolled into the Salt Lake Valley in July of 1847. Utah's Black Hawk War is the name of the estimated 150 battles, skirmishes, raids, and killings between Mormon settlers in southern Utah and members of the Ute, Paiute, and Navajo tribes. It was a war between the Ute Native Americans and the Mormon settlers. It was powerful, filled with emotions, truths and love. Wakara's patience was wearing thin and again warned Young to leave, and to not build any fort (Fort Utah) on their land near Timpanogos Lake. When the settlers arrived in the Utah Territory many drove the wild animals that the Natives hunted into the mountains, and allowed their cattle, horses and sheep to eat the grass, which was a major food source for the Native Americans. It was comprised of about 150 skirmishes between Utah settlers and the Indians. Deaths from violence, starvation, and disease over a twenty three year period were in the thousands. The Ute and Timpanogos live on the same Uinta Valley Reservation in Utah but they are distinctly different Tribes in origin, language, and customs. As tensions continued to escalate, on February 28, of 1849 Brigham Young falsely accuses a small group of 'Indians' of stealing his horses which led to the senseless killing of a peaceful group of Timpanogos at Pleasant Grove armed with only a rifle and never fired one shot. Isaac Higbee was the bishop of Fort Utah and he met with the First Presidency and the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles at the Fort when they agreed that the only way to keep Fort Utah would be to exterminate the Timpanogos. As you follow him through his journey of discovery, you will be captivated by his experiences. ", "In 1989, what began as a mere curiosity into the Black Hawk War led to an extended period of exhaustive research spanning over 20 years" Gottfredson wrote, "It became clear that all accounts were written from the Mormon’s one-sided perspective. Or William E. Croft looting Chief Black Hawk's grave and placing his remains on public display in the window of a hardware store my father remembered so well, and later at Temple Square for decades as amusement. We tried to take from them their hunting rights, their fishing rights, the timber on their land. From inside the book . Utah’s Black Hawk War not only explores political intricacies and broader implications, scrutinizing the Mormons' Indian policies—most notably Brigham Young’s extraordinary "better to feed them than fight them" teachings—but also presents vivid narrative accounts of various raids and battles. Forgotten are the thousands of Native American men, women, and innocent children who bled to death on the battlefields of Bear River, Pleasant Grove, Provo, Manti, or on the shores of Utah Lake. Six of the eight brothers were the uncles of Antonga Black Hawk who was the son of Sanpitch. They also formed local militia to defend against the raids. 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